Water treatment and recycling and waste recovery
Many attempts have been done to integrate or ameliorate the tertiary process in the WWTP with the aim of reducing the concentration of emerging pollutants in the effluent, but the effectiveness of new tools mostly depends by the composition and quality of wastewater, and costs have been increased dramatically.
New methods: Filtration using clay-composite materials
An attempt to reduce costs using natural materials
New methods: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs)
Recent trends are the development of new, modified AOPs that are efficient and low cost.
Futuristic methods: SuperCritical Water Oxidation (SCWO)
An attempt to introduce green chemistry.